A team of students from Gadjah Mada University (UGM) discovered the potential of cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum burmanni) as a natural feed additive for laying hens, to minimize antibiotic residues in eggs.
This research is part of the Student Creativity Program. It was conducted by five students, namely Nuril Qolbi Safitri, Farhan Dio Sahari, Syifa Aulia Pramudani, Dwi Ardyan Syah Mustofa from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Khalid Furqon Hanif from the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, with assistant lecturer Dr. dr. Vista Budiariati, M.Sc.
Farhan said, eggs are livestock commodities that contribute to the largest consumption in Indonesia. In addition to the low price, chicken eggs are very popular with the public because they are easy to obtain and process.
“Relatively cheap, easy to obtain and process, and have good nutritional content, making eggs popular with the community,” said Farhan as quoted from UGM website, Thursday, September 15, 2022.
According to Farhan, the high demand for eggs requires the fulfillment of the need for eggs with good quality, so that they are safe for public consumption. Various efforts have been made to increase chicken productivity and egg quality, namely by providing addictive feeds or additional feed for livestock.
“One of them is by using antibiotics. In fact, these antibiotics are often used to treat and prevent diseases in livestock and to stimulate growth by suppressing pathogenic bacteria in the digestive tract of livestock, “he explained.
Team Leader, Nuril Qolbi Safitri added, inappropriate and excessive use of antibiotics in livestock can cause antibiotic residues to appear in livestock products. For example, eggs, when consumed by humans continuously can cause antibiotic resistance.
“Several studies have shown that eggs on the market are positive for residues from several classes of antibiotics. This of course can endanger the health of humans who consume it,” she explained.
Nuril said, antibiotic resistance itself is a condition when antibiotics are no longer able to be used to kill bacteria or it can be said that the bacteria in the body are already immune. This causes the disease to be difficult to cure, the patient suffers from worse symptoms and can even lead to complications that lead to death.
“Antibiotic resistance itself is now dubbed a silent pandemic because of the high incidence of 2.1 million people every year and many patients who are not aware that they have been infected,” said Nuril.
Syifa Aulia Pramudani said the government had officially banned the use of antibiotics in feed. This is stated in the Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture No. 14 years 2017.
“Backed by this, we are looking for alternative materials that can be used as feed additives for layer cattle that are safer and do not pose a risk of antibiotic resistance, one of which is by using herbal ingredients,” said Syifa.
The use of these herbal ingredients include cinnamon leaves. Cinnamon leaves were chosen because they contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids that have an antibacterial mechanism so that they can replace the function of antibiotics.
In addition, cinnamon leaves have not been widely used by the community and only the wood is often used as a spice or food seasoning. Through the Cinnamon Leaf process, it can become a nanoemulsion preparation so that it can maximize drug absorption.
“Cinnamon leaves are made into nanoemulsion preparations and can increase the efficiency of drug absorption so as to optimize the effectiveness of the active compounds,” she said.
In more detail, Dwi Ardyan Syah Mustofa revealed that the UGM student team carried out tests to evaluate the particle size and stability of the nanoemulsions that had been made. The test results showed good stability of the nanoemulsion.
Meanwhile, based on the Particle Size Analyzer, it was found that the size of the nanoparticles formed was 20.1 nm which met the requirements for nanoemulsion preparations in the range of 20-200 nm. In addition to testing the presence or absence of antibiotic residues, the team also examined egg quality parameters such as egg weight, shell thickness, egg yolk index, egg white index and Haugh Units.
“The administration of nanoemulsion gave a significant difference to the Haugh Unit value of eggs produced by chickens against the control group,” he said.
Khalid Furqon Hanif concluded from In Vivo testing, detection of antibiotic residues, and routine blood hematology, the results of the group giving cinnamon leaf nanoemulsion were able to minimize the presence of antibiotic residues in the eggs produced and improve the quality of the eggs produced.
The manufacture of nanoemulsion preparations from cinnamon leaves can optimize the effectiveness of the active compounds contained in it and is expected to be a solution to realize quality egg consumption and free from antibiotic residues.